DuBois favored more of a separatist black community, much along the lines of thought of Marcus Garvey, who felt blacks should return to Africa if they couldn't enjoy equality in the US. Critics of DuBois felt his beliefs were exclusionary, just like the racism he sought to end.
In contrast, Washington favored a model of assimilation, in which blacks educated themselves to fit in appropriately in society and realize success and respect. Critics of Washington felt he was asking blacks to sacrifice their identity to fit into a white-controlled society and the education he sought for all was really a white man's education.
This is a simplification, of course. Best to study your history for the details.
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